Modern web applications shift the user interface (UI) logic from the server-side to the client-side to reduce interaction latency and avoid unnecessary server requests.  This is done by running the UI logic in JavaScript. Numerous JavaScript libraries exist to help developers organize their logic and create a maintainable separation of concerns.  There also now exists numerous CSS libraries that make it easy to build a good looking UI.

One of the most popular modern JavaScript UI libraries is AngularJS since it supports data binding and makes it easy to separate the Model, View, and Controller (MVC) aspects of the UI.  For styling the UI, Bootstrap is the most popular CSS library.

Both AngularJS and Bootstrap are easy to use in Visualforce pages that work both on desktop browsers and in the Salesforce1 mobile app.

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